Causes, symptoms and treatment of nail fungus

To recognize toenail fungus, why it appears and how to deal with it, it helps the specialized medical literature, sites on the Internet. However, it is recommended to give preference to consultations with the mycologist. Laboratory tests performed accurately establish the type of fungal infection, which facilitates the choice of the correct treatment scheme.

What is onychomycosis

A subgroup of diseases caused by the penetration of fungal microorganisms into the tissue of the nail plate is onychomycosis. The infection is usually caused by untreated skin lesions on the fingers / toes. The disease can occur at any age, but it is more common for men aged 20 to 55 to face it.

According to the International Classification of Diseases, the code of onychomycosis is B35. 1. It is mainly dermatophytes that cause pathological changes in the nails, less frequently diagnostic studies are established by pathogens of the genus Candida or fungi microorganisms.

Nail fungus is transmitted, which is why it occurs in 90% of cases - it involves direct contact with an already sick person, for example, with members of the same family, or with close communication, using common household items. Promotes infection by weakening the body's immune barriers -causes of toenail fungusare rooted in diabetes, immunodeficiency, recent serious illnesses.

The clinical picture depends directly not only on the type of mycosis pathogen, but also on the area of its penetration - the distal form of onychomycosis or the proximal nail lesion. The variant with total spread of the infection is extremely rare.

Causes and symptoms of nail fungus

Research carried out by specialists allowed us to studynail fungus, where does it come fromand which people are at risk of infection. Pathogenic microorganisms live not only in the tissues of the feet and hands, but also in the rest of the human body, they are able to maintain their vital activity in the surrounding objects. For that, it is enough that they are in hot and humid climates and for nutrition there are enough epidermal scales, which disintegrate constantly in humans.

Maincauses of toenail fungus:

  • age criterion - anyone can face a fungal infection, but men aged 18 to 50 are susceptible to it;
  • work in dangerous industries - in rooms polluted with gas, dusty with high temperature / humidity;
  • constant use of tight, poorly ventilated shoes;
  • frequent minor tissue injuries - abrasions, abrasions, calluses on the feet;
  • anatomical and physiological characteristics - for example, narrow interdigital spaces;
  • tendency to excessive sweating - hyperhidrosis;
  • the course of various somatic pathologies that weaken the skin's protective barriers - diabetes, hyperthyroidism, psoriasis, obesity.

Suspectnail fungusallow the symptoms and signs characteristic of the disease. Most of the time, people go to the doctor with complaints that the nail plate is cloudy, yellowish in color, emanates an unpleasant odor from the feet and there is an increase in the fragility of the nail edge.

Fungus risk groups

In fact, onychomycosis is a public infection. After all, everyone can become infected with fungi, especially when visiting places where the concentration of pathogens is higher. Many people are at risk:

  • bath and sauna staff, swimming pools and gymnasiums;
  • public place cleaners;
  • family members of a sick person;
  • people weakened by recent illnesses;
  • pregnant women - pregnancy worsens the condition of the skin on the feet;
  • people who neglect personal hygiene;
  • forced to stay in a hot, poorly ventilated room for the entire work shift, especially with tight shoes made of artificial materials;
  • women visiting pedicure salons with an unverified reputation;
  • beach lovers - the sand is usually infected with fungal microorganisms, because people walk on it barefoot or with dirty shoes.

If you know who has more andbecause it is the nail fungus, it is easier to protect yourself from infections. Therefore, each person is advised to assess the risk of infection and to take appropriate preventive measures.

Diagnosis of the disease

It is much easier to get rid of the pathological focus of the disease, it is much easier to choose treatment when the person seeks medical help early. Since the clinical manifestations of onychomycosis are similar to the symptoms of other pathologies of the nail plate, the mycologist will prescribe a series of diagnostic procedures:

  • a complete examination of the affected nail with a magnifying glass;
  • collection of complaints and anamnesis - the reasons for its penetration into the tissues, which a person can indicate on his own;
  • remove shavings from the surface of the plate and examine the cells under a microscope;
  • removing a piece of the nail to sow in a special nutrient medium - the existing fungal colonies begin to multiply actively, but the analysis takes a long time;
  • histological examination - if malignancy of the process is suspected.

After comparing all the information from the diagnostic procedures, the mycologist gives his qualified opinion - confirms the preliminary diagnosisnail fungusand then select the ideal regimen for your therapy.

Pedicure in an unchecked beauty salon is the cause of nail fungus

Nail fungus treatment

Important information aboutnail fungusfor a mycologist, as it allows to identify and eliminate the mechanism of human infection, as well as to select the correct treatment regimen. After all, there are many pathogens in an infectious disease and some drugs will be effective, while others will only stop the growth of the infectious cells, but do not completely eliminate them.

By configurationcauses of nail fungusspecialists at the first consultation give recommendations for its elimination - for example, buying new shoes, taking care of personal hygiene, treating all family members. Only after that, having estimatedwhy fungus on nails, you can start drug therapy. It is common to distinguish two main areas - a local effect on the lesion with the help of fungicidal ointments, varnishes and, according to individual needs, courses on systemic antifungals.

Traditional treatment

In the classic version,because there is a fungus on the toenails- infection through contaminated shoes or walking barefoot on the tiles of the pool, it is preferable to start medication on the infection with external means. On the pharmacy shelf, antifungal drugs are presented in a wide variety:

  • subgroup of polyenes - distinguished by democratic cost and high efficiency, a variety of pharmaceutical forms;
  • azole subgroup - face most known fungal microorganisms with timely initiation of therapy;
  • subgroup of aliamides - it is inherent to quickly suppress mycosis of the nails, hair or epithelium of the feet and body.

After finding outwhy the fungus appears on the nails, the mycologist will recommend the ideal drugs for the external suppression of onychomycosis activity - a cream / ointment with fungicidal properties. Whereas, in the case of a severe course of the disease, pills / capsules or injections of drug solutions will be prescribed - to create a systemic effect on the infection.

It is unacceptable to independently change the dosage of medications, the frequency of their administration or the duration of treatment. Such actions will worsen the clinical picture of onychomycosis and lead to the formation of complications.


Long agonail fungus treatmentit was the prerogative of traditional healers. There are many effective recipes with medicinal plants, bee products and improvised home remedies that eliminate discomfort and suppress the activity of fungal microorganisms.

The accumulated knowledge about the causes of the disease and the symptoms, enabled the creation of effective recipes for home treatment:

  1. Make a concentrated solution of potassium permanganate before going to bed, in which to put your feet for 15-20 minutes. Then dry your skin well and apply a mixture of crushed propolis with alcohol to the area affected by the fungus. Attach a gauze bandage on top, leave for a day. Repeat the procedure 3-5 times.
  2. Insist on a dark cabinet in 1 liter of vinegar essence, the contents of 1 pharmacy celandine package. Filter after 3-4 weeks. Add to the foot bath with the salt. The duration of the procedure is 5 to 7 minutes.
  3. Tar soap lotions. After the preliminary vaporization of the tissues of the feet, thoroughly lather the interdigital spaces and nails with tar soap and add table salt on top. Leave it on overnight.

To speed up the recovery of the nail fungus, you can use simple recipes - clean the affected areas in the morning with iodine tincture or with the juice of a golden mustache, Indian onion, celandine. They have bactericidal properties that suppress the activity of fungal cells.

Prevention of fungal diseases

Preventing primary infection, as well as the recurrence of a fungal infection, is much easier than dealing with eliminating the infection of the feet / hands. Primary / secondary prevention interventions are accessible and easy to implement. in the endwhat does the toenail fungus say- in the weakening of the human body's own defenses.

Therefore, to return a strong and powerful immunity, it is necessary to take a number of measures:

  • review the diet - the menu should contain more fresh vegetables with fruits, vitamins, light proteins, but minimize pickles and preservatives, fast food and fatty / smoked dishes;
  • refuse alcohol / tobacco products;
  • pay close attention to personal hygiene - taking a hygienic bath every day, changing underwear, socks;
  • buy shoes made of high quality materials, the size of your feet, never wear someone else's shoes / boots;
  • pedicure yourself with individual tools, or entrust your nails to a professional master;
  • Before visiting public places with moist air - swimming pool, sauna or bath, use protective equipment against fungi.

The common prevention of fungal infection is the observance of sanitary and epidemiological rules - wet cleaning of places with the use of disinfectant solutions, active ventilation and, if necessary, quartzization.

Toenail Fungus Treatment Reviews

  • "Comprehensive treatment of onychomycosis is not only the effect on infection with medications, but also the correction of a person's lifestyle. It is possible to defeat the fungus by a combination of measures - for example, the simultaneous application of ointments, thehardening of the human body and adherence to personal hygiene. In addition, it is recommended to treat all family members at once so that the disease does not recur. There are many antifungal agents in pharmacies, you can choose the ideal therapy regime for each case. "
  • "I recently learned that if there is nail fungus - my diagnosis is onychomycosis, the process of early inflammation started in the blood and tests can show that. The doctor-mycologist told me in detail all the information about the fungal infection and the bestway of dealing with it. Now that I have had therapy, I feel much better. Now I’ll better observe the prevention of these pathologies, and also tell my friends and acquaintances so they don’t get infected with this bad infection. "
  • "Pharmaceuticals, of course, can deal with nail fungus, but at the same time they are harmful to health with their chemical components. So I prefer to use traditional medicine recipes first. I took the fungus out of my husband's feet from asimple way - every night they sprayed their nails with a soda bath, then applied lotions with homemade vinegar. At first, the burning itch was eliminated, then healthy nails grew back. In addition, they took decoctions with marigold andchamomile, echinacea, to strengthen the immune system. Now my husband has completely rid himself of the fungus on his nails. "